When all the valley was flower seeds
Grand Forks BC takes over for Belgium and Holland during WWII
By Rosemary Phillips, the first article in a series about agriculture in Grand Forks
Written for and originally published in the Grand Forks Gazette in 2001
From the range lands of Rock Creek to the irrigated fields of Grand
Forks' valleys, and the nurseries east towards Christina Lake, it
doesn't take much effort to see that the Boundary region has an
active agricultural industry.
What seemed at first like an effortless project, to examine the
industry and it's role in the Boundary, has become anything but,
when seeing the diversity of an industry that includes everything
from bee hives and fruit trees, to greenhouses, field crops, nurseries,
livestock, feed and seed, tourism, dairy, and all the spin-offs
such as packing, shipping, distribution, marketing, retail, pest
control, and even new technology support. It's no simple industry.
And it's not an easy industry to be in.
"It's a lifestyle choice that has commercialization with it,"
explains Garfield Marshall of Advance Orchards.
Agriculture is a historical business
Agriculture is a historical business. Societies start out with
agriculture, then fob it off to smaller areas. Yet a society requires
food for survival. The Roman Empire, for example, conquered nations
to draw upon resources to sustain their growing population. Similarly,
with globalization we can get fresh anything from anywhere in the
world, 365 days a year.
"We take food for granted," explains Marshall. "If
we go to Japan, Europe and Asia where people have starved, food
has different value. In North America we've had the luxury of never
having had a war, and never experiencing a food shortage, so food
is cheaper and easily accessible. Looking at it from a producers
point of view, whether fruit or vegetable, you're dealing with first
world cost, and regulations, which means getting first world revenue,
which is minimal. Not many folks in agriculture would say they're
not having a difficult time."
Everything is world priced
Everything is world priced, and protectionism is a thing of the
past. Apples are produced in the U.S., Canada, Europe, South Africa,
Chile and China. They all use the same technology, and have the
same varieties. Freight allows produce to be anywhere in the world
in two weeks.
It's the folks in the commodity business that are seeing it the
worst. "The only ones who can survive are those with a niche
market, or like the lifestyle," adds Marshall. "In Grand
Forks, what we are looking at is green pasture by and large. But
if you do the map it's not operating farms; owners have five acres,
a house, a car. It's a luxury and a wonderful thing to have. Very
few people make their livelihood from agriculture."
"At one time all the valley was pretty well used for farming,"
says Tony Lodder, long time potato grower and area representative
for the B.C. Vegetable Market Commission. "Families used to
do it together, now everything is done with machines. It hurts me
to see the land idle and not producing."
Irrigating the valley of Grand Forks
Part of that problem is lack of irrigation. In the 1920's an irrigation
system was installed throughout the valley, and by the 1990's it
had started to deteriorate. "A new irrigation system got squashed
in 1976," adds Lodder. "We finally got it later, but it
cost so much more. To be included in the system farmers had to sign
into it. Many didn't because of the cost, and some were not interested
in farming anymore. There's land I'd like to grow on but there's
no water. The only alternative is to put a well in."
At the end of the 19th century the Boundary area was used mostly
for grazing. In 1885 William Covert settled in west Grand Forks
and started the first orchard and mixed farm, with apples, plums,
cherries, prune trees, grapes and strawberries, along with milk
cows, chickens and turkeys. Settlers who followed expanded on this
and Grand Forks was recognized on provincial, federal, and international
levels for it's quality of fruit and vegetables.
In 1905 the Frache Bros. opened up a large greenhouse complex just
west of the city, and specialized in vegetables, flowers and bedding
plants. By 1908 Riverside Nurseries had the largest area in the
province of nursery stock, supplying thousands of fruit trees to
the Okanagan and the valley west of Kamloops. Considerable acreage
in the area was also given to carrots, beets, lettuce and radishes,
expanding to premium quality tomatoes, corn, melons, cucumbers and
cabbage. In addition to fruit, potatoes and wheat were grown and
shipped by rail from the valley. There was a canning company, potato
evaporating and fruit packing plants, and a creamery. The Doukhobor
community specialized in apples, ran a jam factory, and grew flax.
Grand Forks takes over from Holland and Belgium growing
seeds during the war
During the Second World War, Grand Forks took over from Holland
and Belgium in seed growing. "The whole valley was flower seeds,"
adds Lodder. When European countries recovered, the business was
taken away from Grand Forks which then found it's niche in potatoes,
and became the potato capitol of B.C. Lodder is still into potatoes
and onions, but after fifty years in the business he has handed
over the reigns to son Blair and wife Irene of Shady Acres.
There continues to be change in the industry. Some farmers are turning
hay fields into ginseng, and research continues on the possible
future development of a hemp industry. It takes finding a niche,
developing a market, and investment.
"The nursery business has done wonders in the last few years,"
says Lodder, "and has taken over a large portion of the industry."
Three major nurseries moved into the area over the last twenty years;
Advance Orchard, Bron & Sons., and Stewart Bros. "All three
are targetted to different products," explains Marshall. "It
was a new investment in the area, which employs many folks, is a
niche market, and is totally non-dependent upon the region. It's
the kind of business that has a long time horizon."
Other articles in the series were about hothouse production,
potatoes, fruits and vegetables, nurseries and organic dairies -
cow and goat.
Note: There are many more articles on this site.
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